Humates are a large group of preparations that are made from the readily soluble salts of humic acids. These preparations are used in the fields of crop production, livestock, medicine, construction, drilling, ecology, reclamation and land restoration.
Obtaining humic fertilisers and preparations is based on the property of humic acids to form water-soluble salts.
The production of humates is developing in two directions:
– those with a ballast and ballastless fertilisers.
Ballastless humates (containing a higher percentage of active nutrients) are more often called preparations or growth stimulants, where adding a ballast in the process of the separation from the substrate and the purification from impurities is not carried out.
This substrate separation is associated with differences in the methods of application and dosages of the above-mentioned types of humates.
The fact that humates have a positive effect on the growth and development of plants was first discovered in the late 19th century, and their use was particularly intensified in the 1960s. Since that time, massive data has been accumulated on this subject, including the ability of humates to inactivate the action of heavy metals and organic pollutants in soil. Moreover, the strongest effect of humates is manifested under unfavourable environmental conditions:
with insufficient or excessive humidity; low or high temperatures; insufficient illumination or an excess of the sun; or contamination with heavy metals, radionuclides or organic pollutants. This occurs since the physiologically active humates increase the resistance of plants to the influence of these unfavourable environmental factors.
Humic subsequently tances and their importance in life processes.
Soil consists of organic and inorganic substances, as well as living microorganisms. The main constituents of the organic substances that are found in nature are humic substances. They are a very important component of the soil, which affects the physical and chemical properties of the soil as well as increasing its fertility.
Humic substances are formed during the decomposition of living organisms. The main components of humic substances are humic acid, fulvic acid and humins.
Humic substances perform several important functions in the environment.
They allow it to:
- preserve the nutrients and microelements necessary for plant growth for a long time;
- improve the exchanges of nutrients in living organisms (both plants and animals);
- regulate the extraction of nutrients and water from the soil;
- provide protection from adverse natural factors and strengthen the immunity of plants and animals;
- improve the efficiency of photosynthesis and increase the chlorophyll content in plants, thereby increasing the yield and endurance of plants;
- effectively absorb toxic heavy metals and ensure their removal from the body, thus acting as a bioregulator.